*Please note, the Airplane Graveyard was destroyed in May of 2011.
The planes are no longer there*
The Airplane Graveyard in St. Augustine Florida holds a special place in my heart as it was the catalyst for my creative career as a photographer. When I discovered them in January of 2009 I had no idea the images I was taking would be the building blocks for a career that would take off a few years later, or that one of them would be selected by Ron Howard to help inspire a film! I have posts here on the Art of Abandonment about our initial discovery of the planes and their subsequent destruction, but I’d like to take the time now to share the story and history behind these eight Navy planes that found their unlikely home in our nation’s oldest city.
When I was photographing the Grumman S2 trackers back in 2009, my best friend Casey was with me. While I was giddily photographing the insides and outsides of the aircraft, he had the foresight to document the tailfin numbers and identifying marks of each of the planes. This came in handy about two years later when I was contacted by LCdr Gordy. A. Bonnel, USN(ret), the head of RAFS (Real Aviators Flew Stoofs). The term “Stoof” is slang for the popular model number of the Gruman Tracker “S2F”. RAFS represents over 6000 pilots who specifically flew these Gruman S2 trackers both commercially and with the Navy. Gordy had seen my images of the trackers and had written me asking if he could share the images with his members. Of course, I was honored! A few months later I had Casey round up the images of the tailfin numbers and I sent them to Gordy who forwarded them to his pilots. Within days the pilots had scoured their flight logs and we had the names of pilots who had flown every single plane in the graveyard at one point in their career! I was even able to speak with some of them personally and listen to their stories. It was an amazing cross generational connection.
Over the following months George Verney, one of the pilots that identified the planes as ones that he had flown, began going through his archives and found historical photos of these specific planes when they were in operation. He also did a full 55 page write up about how these planes came to St. Augustine.
The following images, and text are used courtesy of, and with permission from George Verney:
The transfer of Grumman S-2E tracker aircraft from storage at Davis-Monthan AFB in Tucson, Arizona was actually generated by the fall of Iran and the takeover of that government by Ayatollah Khomeini. In addition to Khomeini’s taking of hostages at our embassy, he shut down all other U. S. installations in Iran including listening posts at the border with the Soviet Union. This action prompted the U. S. government to approach the Turkish government and ask to establish replacement posts in those areas of Turkey bordering the USSR.
The Turkish navy had been operating S-2s for several years and wanted to upgrade their fleet. Sensing themselves to be in a position of strength in the negotiations with the U. S. State Department, they not only asked for eighteen S-2Es but also specified they be delivered to the Naval Station Mayport in Florida… The USN was not happy about this unusual Turkish arrangement. Nonetheless, the navy was told to make it happen and contracting for the service was the next best alternative. That job fell to the S-2 Weapons System Manager (WSM) located at the Naval Air Rework Facility (NARF), Jacksonville.
My employer in 1983 was Logistic Services International, Inc. (LSI)…and was well known to the WSM office because of our S-2 training programs… We were contacted about our interest in ferrying the airplanes from Tucson Arizona to the Mayport station in Florida. Thus began an extended adventure which lasted until June of 1987 when the last two aircraft were delivered to NAS Genghis Topel in Turkey.
Some of the aircraft had been sitting on the desert floor for up to fourteen years. They were preserved to the extent that SPRAYLAT (the cocooning covers) was applied only to areas where water and debris intrusion could occur. They were not fully cocooned. The team had many dealings with the WSM and Davis Air Force folks getting replacements for components which had suffered from their time on the open desert. Some engines had not been properly preserved; some main landing gear assemblies had been damaged or cannibalized. It was the USN’s responsibility to provide us with aircraft that could be made worthy of the one-time ferry provision. Not surprisingly, a good deal of extra work had to be done.
As LSI and WIA prepared to begin ferry operations, LSI was approached by the Turkish Navy asking if we were interested in extending our ferry contract to fly the aircraft all the way to Turkey…. (This) set off further discussions between the WSM office, Grumman St. Augustine Corporation (GSAC), LSI and other potential overhaul providers. While a final resolution was being ironed out, an interim destination for the Trackers now called for them to be flown to NAS Jacksonville instead of Mayport.
In early October 1984 Chip Beedle, John Whitmore and myself (George Verney) arrived in Tucson along with three LSI mechanics to ferry three S-2Es across the country to NAS Jacksonville. Right away we encountered frustration – of an unexpected variety. Tucson experienced heavy rains just prior to our arrival and we were unable to tow the aircraft from WIA’s facility across the desert floor to the hard stand next to Davis-Monthan’s runways. Rain water soaks quite slowly into a hard packed desert floor and it takes the sun days rather than hours before a muddy slurry dissipates… So despite clear blue skies, there was nothing to do but wait for the sun to do its job. Finally on October 5th all three Trackers lifted off from Davis-Monthan…
Chip and John had crossed from Tucson to Ellington unable to communicate with anyone on the ground or with each other. On arrival at Ellington they entered the break rocking wings to signal their loss of communications. The tower gave them green lights and they came aboard only to be met by Air Force brass and the FAA! What they had not known was the Air Force Thunderbird flight demonstration team had been practicing for an air show to be flown the next day and the unscheduled and unannounced arrival of two S-2s disrupted the practice. It is not clear how Chip and John calmed the situation but I have always thought the FAA and Air Force folks felt sorry for them when they saw the condition of what they were flying!
I finally led a three plane departure in the only airplane with operable radio communications. Still, none of the three airplanes could communicate with one another… The weather was good all across the Gulf coast and we reached NAS Jacksonville after 5.3 hours of flight time. As John Whitmore touched down at NAS a main mount tire blew and he had to taxi clear of the runway in that condition because, without communications, he could not advise the tower of his problem.
Clearly, this was not a problem free trip. Nonetheless, we learned a good deal about the challenges and did succeed in bringing three S-2E Trackers from Arizona to Florida.
In January 1985… the remaining eleven S-2s at Tucson were left for John and I to bring across. Twice John and I flew as a flight of two aircraft but more often only one S-2 was available and we crossed in a single airplane. These flights were enjoyable. Mostly low altitude trips using a combination of visual and airways navigation which afforded us great views of the southern USA and the gulf coast. John brought six airplanes, including BUNO #149260 which many years later was photographed by free-lance photographer, Walter Arnold, and awarded a prize by film producer Ron Howard. I brought the other five.
As the New Year began, no decision had been made as to which facility would be awarded the overhaul contract so we continued until the end of March to terminate our cross country flights at NAS Jacksonville, eventually staging a total of eleven S-2s along a taxi way on the north side of the field. Once Grumman St. Augustine, now Northrup-Grumman, secured the overhaul contract… the Tucson trips could now terminate at the St. Augustine Airport, SGJ. It was decided that the most economical means of getting the aircraft from NAS to SGJ was by barge as can be seen in the photo which appeared in The Florida Times Union showing nine S-2s passing under Jacksonville’s Main Street Bridge enroute to St. Augustine via the St. Johns River and the Intracoastal Canal.
In the spring of 1985 the overhaul contract was finally signed between the Grumman St. Augustine Corporation and the Turkish government… LSI was also awarded a separate contract to ferry S-2Es after completing overhaul at St. Augustine to the Turkish Naval Air Station, Ghengis Topel. LSI’s contract called for the ferry flights to begin as soon as aircraft completed overhaul. LSI was required to ferry as many as three aircraft at a time beginning in September 1985 and continuing over the winter months into the following year.
By late September of 1986 the first three S-2Es were declared ready for ferry to Turkey. The folks at Grumman jumped through any number of bureaucratic hoops as they schmoozed U. S. Custom officials into ‘going out of their way’ and traveling to St. Augustine to ‘inspect’ the airplanes and provide the necessary General Declarations for all three aircraft and one spare. Ownership of the aircraft enroute seemed to be a nearly insurmountable problem for these officials. The airplanes had USN insignia applied in shadow which could be easily obliterated once in Turkey, while on the nose a large circle enclosed the fouled anchor found on all Turkish naval aircraft. I think customs finally decided to just remain confused.
September 25, 1986 was the big day; first departure from St. Augustine Airport for NAS Brunswick, Maine, final destination: Ghengis Topel Naval Air Station, Turkey. Having significantly increased the S-2s range with the addition of 255 gallons of AVGAS, our routing to Turkey was simplified but every leg would be at least 4.5 hours with several extending to over seven hours. Planned routing took us from St. Augustine direct to NAS Brunswick, Maine. From there we went to St. Johns Newfoundland, then to Lajes in Portugal (the longest over water leg at 1250 miles). From Lajes the next stop was NAS Rota, Spain. Out of Rota we planned to take advantage of our extra fuel and fly straight across the Mediterranean Sea, cross Sicily and land at NAS Sigonella in Italy. The sixth and last leg would head northeast from Sigonella to cross the Ionian Sea and enter Greek airspace just south of the Albanian border. This leg took us across Greece to the western border of Turkey and on into Topel which lies a few miles east of the Turkish Naval Base at Gurlchuk.
The following are excerpts of events transpiring over the course of a year flying the S2’s transatlantic to Turkey:
“…it was on this trip where we encountered the Sicilian Judge. (After flying from Portugal, to Sigonella Italy, we had just arrived at the Sigonella Inn to spend the night) A number of cars pulled in ahead of us as we arrived… As we piled out in our flight gear, carrying parachute bags we were immediately surrounded by a group of young men in bad suits carrying Uzis. One of the cars at the entrance carried a Sicilian Judge who was speaking at a big event that night at the Inn. The Uzi guys were his personal body guards and the sight of four guys in strange outfits carrying large bags made them quite nervous until they realized we were not gunmen out to dispatch his honor. Later that night we could spot some of those same young men patrolling the grounds, complete with Uzis, in a scene right out of The Godfather.”
“This last leg took us northeast past Mt. Etna and across the Ionian Sea to the Greek FIR where we succeeded in making contact with Athens Control. We were now level at, I think, 9,000′ and with Larry Akins in the left seat for this leg, I went aft to switch the valve on the 55 gallon aux tank. Next thing I know Larry is motioning for me to get back up front. A Hellenic F-4 Phantom had intercepted us and the pilot was making close aboard passes while taking photos with a hand held camera for his scrap book…” “…As we entered the Greek FIR we were once again intercepted by one of their F-4s but this time the pilot did not get so darn close. The Greek Air Force intercepted each of our flights to Turkey unless the weather was bad or we came through on a weekend.”
“…Crossing Greece required a climb to thirteen thousand feet in order to clear the Greek Alps. Since we carried no oxygen, we limited our time at that altitude to only what was necessary over the western half of the country. Fortunately, the weather was excellent and the scenery beautiful on this leg…”
Over the next year eleven of the Gruman S-2E’s had been successfully delivered to the Turkish Navy.
Eight of the S2’s originally taken from Tuscon were declared unfit for trans-Atlantic flight and decommissioned in the subsequent years. They were purchased by a man in St. Augustine who parked them in a small plot of land off the side of highway 1 and cannibalized them for parts. The planes sat there for almost 25 years until in May of 2011 when the land changed hands and the new owner had them all destroyed for scrap.
To bring this story a full 360 degrees, I had the honor of meeting George Verney in person at the Gainesville Fall Arts Festival in November of 2013. I can’t even begin to say what an honor it was to meet the man that was personally connected to these planes!
Great story. On the Turkish side, it was my dad who led the Turkish delegation that went to Tucson, AZ in 1984 and selected the Trackers for the Turkish Navy that were then flown by George Verney and fellow pilots to Turkey. However, the Turkish Navy was flying the Trackers since the mid 70s and one of my childhood memories from the 70s was the one on display in the Gölcük, the main naval base of Turkey. I couldn’t get into the cockpit of the display plane but was squeezing into the landing gear well to see whatever I could see. Many years later, I have a wonderful 1/48 model of a Turkish Navy S-2E proudly sitting in my library. My dad, 80 years old by now, still has fond memories of that particular trip to Tucson. As for me, one of my dreams was to visit Pima Air & Space Museum and Davis Monthan AFB in Tucson, which I got to realize in March 2017. Among many others, I was also able to see the venerable Tracker, maybe for the last time.
Go see UAC, they have about 100 of the S2’s in Davis Monthan now. http://www.unitedaero.com. They are the Guru’s of old Grumman aircraft, and sure bet that they have some history to tell you.
Crewed on STOOF’s at NAS Seattle from 1960-1970 and then went to WNG for a commission and then on to the USAR (1970-1999).
My squadron, VS-891, was activated Oct 61 for a year and assigned to NAS Whidbey who said they had no space for us. We spent the year flying ASW patrols out of NAS Seattle. Exciting times for a 19 year old 3rd Class Petty Officer.
We started with S2f1’s, with the ECM antenna in a housing on the top front of the fuselage. Towards the end of the year we started receiving the S2D’s.
A few months after being released from active duty we lost a pilot taking one of the planes to the boneyard, then at Litchfield Park, AZ. Both pilots bailed out, one made it. That was one of the few successful bailouts in the lifetime of the S2F.
A group of us still get together for lunch a couple of times a year at The Museum OF Flight at Boeing Field. Almost all the pilots have passed and our group is smaller every year.
Some of our pilots were WW II and Korea War vets with a few younger ones. They were all competent professional people. I spent 29 years in the Guard and Army Reserves but God how I still miss my Navy days and flying in the STOOF>
Well as “airplane nut” and even bigger military aviation fan, I can say I hung on the words of the pilots of these planes, and your supporting back story, I feel like every time one of these planes are destroyed, it takes a tiny fiber of our collective history away…cannibalized to feed any number motives. I have been to airshows where the old warbirds fly and I have to say I get as much of a thrill out of watching them put on display some of the tasks they were asked to do. I honestly probably get more enjoyment from seeing them, and knowing in that planes life, it has accomplished something important. To see ripped away for a monetary gain, really is heartbreaking to me. By the way if you have never been to Titusville FL museum you should go. Although it’s not the “grungier” side of things as in these photos, it is well worth going to see some of these old (and newer) birds preserved. Thanks to you and the pilots for the photographic journey!
I few the S2 F 2 and 1/2 yrs in the fleet In 1959-1961 in VS 31 and VS28. I had over 200 landings on
USS WASP. Lots of fun and lots of memories.@
I am the guy who was contracted to cut the planes up and have them removed via recycling. It was really cool to be a part of the project and being able to see them up close. It continues to stand out as my most favorite job that I ever did.
Happy to see this blog post and learn the history of the planes.
What memories this article brings back. As a young man during the vietnam war stationed with VS30 in Quonset Point. Rode island I served as a “Plane Captain” for the old S2 for serveral year and as “FRAMP” Aircraft handler/Plane Captain instructor until I est’s In June of 1971. I will always remember my first experience in aviation with the S2E/G aircraft and the many pilots and maintainer I met while serving in the USNavy,
Walter-excellent images! Great story! As a young Marine stationed in Iwakuni, Japan I served as Crash, Fire & rescueman for two years! We had Navy S2s coming & going often! As a fellow photographer I am in awe of the beautiful captures & PP your have done on this project! My cousin, who resides in Florida ,has seen your work at a New Smyrna festival & was so impressed he passed on your info-I will follow you on FB & hope to meet you next year in New Smyrna! Well done, my friend!!Great work!
Great art, and great to see this bit of history preserved so well! Bravo Zulu!
My husband and I purchased a large metal print identical to the one in the background in the photo of you and George Verney. We found it in a Charleston gallery and brought it home to Tennessee. The history you provide is very much appreciated, but I have found the beauty and formal qualities of the photograph more compelling each day. I love the color and light, the overall composition, and the fascinating juxtaposition of the manmade in decay surrounded by rampant natural growth.
We had a number of S2’s at NAS Pt Mugu, CA in the early 1970’s. I worked on them for about 6 months before I was transferred to the Helo Crew (H-34’s, H-3’s, H-46’s).
Pretty sad seeing these birds sitting in a field like that. I hate to say it, but better that they’re gone for scrap than sitting there rusting away.
WOW!!! What awesome pictures and an even cooler story of untold history! I would love to see some more aircraft pictures. There is a private aircraft graveyard in Marana AZ. It is owned by Evergreen. It’s located at pinal Airpark. It is mostly civilian aircraft but I did see some military stuff In there. Just a thought. You would need permission though, it’s pretty well guarded.
I believe my father, Thomas Neville, was partly responsible for making this happen. He spoke of this project several times before his passing a few years back. He told storis of how the project was all hush-hush while in progress. Dad was Chief Contract Administrator at Grumman at the time and retired CWO4 Navy. I am curious if anyone has info on his involvement.
In 1986 I was working at an aircraft engine overhaul shop named Steward-Davis. Steward-Davis had the contract with Grumman to overhaul 40 Wright R1820-82 engines for this project. I overhauled all the master rod assemblies and operated the test cell. I had over 100 hours of total test cell time on this project. I was 27 years old. The R1820-82 was designed to operate at 80 inches of boost using 130/145 octane gasoline. However, by 1986 only 100 octane low lead gas was available, so boost was lowered to 60 inches. This reduced engine output from 1500hp to 1200hp. In October I was sent to Grumman St. Augustine to work out some problems with the low tension ignition systems used on the -82 engine. I then went to Topel NAS in Turkey for 2 months in October-November 1986. While there I was educated as to the mission of the S-2. The Turkish S-2’s conducted ASW patrols in the Black Sea. The Soviet subs in the Black Sea were diesel-electrics, the exact type of subs the S-2’s were designed and equipped to track in the 1950’s and 1960’s.
Came across the article on Facebook and never knew the story about the S-2 in St Augustine. I lived in Jacksonville and came across them when driving to St Augustine on US1 and one day I took some pictures on film for a photography class in 2004 and wish I had them digital. When I desided to go back and get more photos they where gone. Great story.
I saw these photos while visiting Asheville, NC. last New Years with my wife. I almost fell over when I recognized the S-2. I had flown them as a student Naval Aviator with VT-27 in 1972. It was a fun and challenging airplane for a young pilot. Thanks for bringing back some great memories as I approach my 65th birthday. FLY NAVY!
Dave Tobergte (USN 1971-78)
I was stationed @ NAS Corpus Christi VT-27 in 72. I was assigned to the squadron “Troubleshooters” division on the line. I was an AE (Aviation Electricians Mate) and Aircrewman. Probably crossed paths with you or flew with you at one time or another. I crewed almost every bird in the squadron while there. Great memories of those days! Still love the STOOF! I made a career maintaining corporate jets as A&P and Avionics Tech because of my Navy training. The S-2 is still my all time favorite aircraft!
How sad it is to see this…despite the hard work involved while I was in training with VT31 back in 1964, I enjoyed flying the TS2A stoof. My instructors were terrific and prepared me to fly with VAW 12 in the “Stoof with a Roof or Willy Fudd”. In ’67 became a part of VAW 123 and flew the E2A “Hummer. Still I have great memories of flying the TS2A. So sad to see them go to graveyards…Those engines sounded so cool.
Dick (“Uncle Roy”) Achuff (Ex. Lt. USN)
VAW 12-Det 59, VAW 123, RVAW 120
Great story. We need more like that. I was the Flight Surgeon for VS 37 for 2 years, deploying on the USS Hornet. I always enjoyed flying in the S2Fs. Some are still flying, fighting forest fires. They have turboprop engines now.
Never flew a Stoof, but as a young engineer at Calverton final assembly, in 1955, I helped build and deliver them and later versions, like the Willy Fud. This version earned a call from a woman, that a “flying saucer just stole your aircraft”.
I never flew a stoof but as a young engineer in final assembly on it and other versions, in 1955 in Calverton I heard the story that the Willly Fud earned a frightened phone call that “A flying saucer just stole your aircraft”
As a young, SERGRAD Flt. Instr, assigned to VT-31 @ NAS Corpus Christi, TX, from 1975-77, I had the opportunity to ferry a few TS-2A, Trackers, from Corpus to the “Bone Yard” facility @ Davis-Monthan AFB, in Tuszon, AZ. The Naval Air Training Command had begun transitioning from the aging, TS-2A and US-2B aircraft to the Beechcraft, T-44A, King Air, for the Advanced Multi-engine Syllabus.
The ferried aircraft were “VFR Only”, since the instrumentation had been cannabilized. All we had was a UHF radio, a TACAN receiver, a transponder, and the basic, “six pack” flight instruments – which was all we really needed.
The fights were definitely fun, and mostly uneventful. The only exception occurred at the conclusion of an arcing TACAN approach, on a beautiful, clear, desert night.
As we rolled out on final, a Cessna 310 pilot had gotten confused and had lined up on the north runway at Davis-Monthan, which he had mistaken for the north runway at nearby, Tuszon Intl. He never saw us, and I had to execute a hard right, level turn, gear down – full flaps, at about 150 ft above the desert floor – to avoid his descending on top of us! The Big-Controller-in-the-Sky was with us, because we were able to complete the “blind” 360 degree turn, without striking any objects, sticking up out of the desert!
Had we had not seen the Cessna’s bottom, rotating beacon, descending upon us – through the pilot’s, overhead, escape hatch window – being on our FINAL Approach, could have had an entirely different meaning for all 3 pilots!
FLY NAVY! I humbly salute the Stoof and all my fellow naval aviators, who flew her, and grew to love her!
Long live the Sugar Two Fox and all those who carried their lunch in a box. I never flew in one. Was there room for your ass and a gallon of gas? That was the way the old song went. “Give Me Operations,” was the song’s title, I think.
The St. Augustine photos suggest that there might not have been as much room in those S2Fs as the song suggested.
Enjoyed the story of the S-2’s. In either ’73 or ’74 While serving in VS-32 I delivered an S-2 from NAS Dallas to Davis Monthan. She was lacking in avionics and communication equipment as I remember but we made. I wonder if she ever made it to Turkey?
I knew George Verney. We might have been in the same Navy flight training class (07 of 1958) or somewhere along my six years of active duty.
I remember George as being tall and thin. From the pictures I see he still is. Good for him.
This was a great read and pictures. Nice job.
Thanks, Doug McGinty
I had the pleasure of being one of the civilian ferry pilots making 3 trips to Turkey in 1986-1987. George is a fantastic leader, great pilot and one of the most experienced S-2 experts around. It was a great challenge to get them delivered but the team was dedicated to completing the missions. As a young man who was not ex-Navy, it gave me a glimpse of how well trained and competent our naval aviators are and how amazing the S-2 must have been in its hay day. Thank you all for your service.
Thank You for this story. I look forward to the next one and the one after that…..
Great story! I have followed your progress since meeting you in Saluda a few years ago. Your vision is unique, and continues to keep me reading and watching. Keep it up!
Walter, what a wonderful job!! RAFS Newsletter did several issues featuring these aircraft and your photos, but none compared to this fantastic piece of art/history.
Any STOOF pilots not familiar with RAFS please check our website and contact us at
Thank you very much Gordy! I could not have done this without your help!